How to Design Twitter

How to Design Twitter (Part 1)


From last week’s survey, most of our subscribers want to know more about system design interview.

It’s hard to provide tips without any example, that’s why in this post I’ll use a very popular system design question to show you how to solve it.

It’s also worth to note that system design interview question can be extremely open-ended, thus there’s no such thing as a standard answer. Even for the same question, you’ll have a totally different discussion with different interviewers for sure.

As a result, don’t focus too much on the question or solution itself. Instead, you’d better try to generalize certain patterns or strategies from the analysis.

We’ll start with this “simple” question – how will you design Twitter?

Note: I never worked at Twitter and the whole article is to illustrate system design ideas. Also, thanks the whole Gainloteam as we worked together to provide all these analyses.


Common misunderstandings

Before we jump into the analysis, I’d like to clarify one of the most common misunderstandings among job seekers.

When asked to design Twitter, many people tend to dive into technical details immediately. One common behavior is to list a bunch of tools or frameworks like MongoDB, Bootstrap, MapReduce etc. and try to explain which particular technology we should use.

What interviewers really want is high-level ideas about how you will solve the problem. It doesn’t matter what tools you will use, but how you define the problem, how you design the solution and how you analysis the issue step by step are truly important.

These are exactly what separate junior developers from senior engineers. If you haven’t checked this post, you should also take a look.


Define the problem

Let’s get started with the problem – how to design Twitter.

System design questions are usually very general, thus not well-defined. That’s why many people don’t know how to get started.

This is similar to real life projects. Therefore, the first thing we should do is to further define the problem, making it clearer and more concrete.

In this problem, what I would do first is to compress Twitter to its MVP (minimum viable product). In other words, we will only design core features of Twitter instead of everything.

So the whole product should allow people follow each other and view others feeds. It’s as simple as it is. (If any feature is needed, the interviewer should be able to clarify). Anything else like registration, moment, security etc. is out of the scope of discussion.


High-level solution

As we said before, don’t jump into all the details immediately, which will confuse interviewers and yourself as well.

The common strategy I would use here is to divide the whole system into several core components. There are quite a lot divide strategies, for example, you can divide by frontend/backend, offline/online logic etc..

In this question, I would design solutions for the following two things: 1. Data modeling. 2. How to serve feeds.

Data modeling – If we want to use a relational database like MySQL, we can define user object and feed object. Two relations are also necessary. One is user can follow each other, the other is each feed has a user owner.

Serve feeds – The most straightforward way is to fetch feeds from all the people you follow and render them by time.

The interview won’t be stopped here as there are tons of details we haven’t covered yet. It’s totally up to the interviewer to decide what will be discussed next.


Detail questions

With that in mind, there can be infinite extensions from the high-level idea. So I’ll only cover a few follow up questions here.

1. When users followed a lot of people, fetching and rendering all their feeds can be costly. How to improve this?
There are many approaches. Since Twitter has the infinite scroll feature especially on mobile, each time we only need to fetch the most recent N feeds instead of all of them. Then there will many details about how the pagination should be implemented.

You may also consider cache, which might also be helpful to speed things up.

2. How to detect fake users?
This can be related to machine learning. One way to do it is to identify several related features like registration date, the number of followers, the number of feeds etc. and build a machine learning system to detect if a user is fake.

3. Can we order feed by other algorithms?
There are a lot of debate about this topic over the past few weeks. If we want to order based on users interests, how to design the algorithm?

I would say few things we should clarify to the interviewer.

  • How to measure the algorithm? Maybe by the average time users spend on Twitter or users interaction like favorite/retweet.
  • What signals to use to evaluate how likely the user will like the feed? Users relation with the author, the number of replies/retweets of this feed, the number of followers of the author etc. might be important.
  • If machine learning is used, how to design the whole system?

4. How to implement the @ feature and retweet feature?
For @ feature, we can simply store a list of user IDs inside each feed. So when rendering your feeds, you should also include feeds that have your ID in its @ list. This adds a little bit complexity to the rendering logic.

For retweet feature, we could do the similar thing. Inside each feed, a feed ID (pointer) is stored, which indicates the original post if there’s any.

But be careful that when a user retweets a tweet that has been retweeted, you should be able to figure out the correct logic. This is a product decision whether you want to make it into many layers or only keep the original feed.



There are just too many things I’d like to cover in this topic, thus, I have to divide it into two parts.

It’s worth to clarify here that there’s no such thing as the standard solution for each of the questions I’ve mentioned. In other words, there are many alternative solutions that are equally good or better than the one above.

Also, the problem has been simplified a lot, I’m pretty sure that in production Twitter has developed much more things.

Try to emphasize again here, the solution is not what you should care most. Instead, try to understand how I approach and analyze the problem.

If you find this post helpful, I would really appreciate if you can share it with your friends. Also you can check moresystem design interview questions and analysis here.


How to Design Twitter (Part 2)

This post is talking about system design interview, especially the question – how to design twitter. If you haven’t checked the part I, please go and read it.

Alright, here’s the system design interview question – how to design twitter PART II. From what we have covered from last post, we know that system design question can be very open ended. Even for the same question, you will have the totally different discussion with different interviewers for sure.

The analysis is provided by Gainlo team and I’m pretty sure there are better approaches.

Twitter is already a huge product with tons of features. In this post, we’re gonna talk about how to design specific features of Twitter from the system design interview perspective.


Trending topics

Twitter shows trending topics at both the search page and your left column of the home page (maybe somewhere else as well). Clicking each topic will direct you to all related tweets.

The question would be how to design this feature.

If you remember what we have said in the previous post, it’s recommended to have high-level approach first. In a nutshell, I would divide the problem into two subproblems: 1. How to get trending topic candidates? 2. How to rank those candidates?

For topic candidates, there are various ideas. We can get the most frequent hashtags over the last N hours. We can also get the hottest search queries. Or we may even fetch the recent most popular feeds and extract some common words or phrases. But personally, I would go with the first two approaches.

Ranking can be interesting. The most straightforward way is to rank based on frequency. But we can further improve it. For instance, we can integrate signals like reply/retweet/favorite numbers, freshness. We may also add some personalized signals like whether there are many follows/followers talking about the topic.


Who to follow

Twitter also shows you suggestions about who to follow. Actually, this is a core feature that plays an important role in user onboarding and engagement.

If you play around the feature, you will notice that there are mainly two kinds of people that Twitter will show you – people you may know (friends) and famous account (celebrities/brands…).

It won’t be hard to get all these candidates as you can just search through user’s “following graph”and people within 2 or 3 steps aways are great candidates. Also, accounts with most followers can also be included.

The question would be how to rank them given that each time we can only show a few suggestions. I would lean toward using a machine learning system to do that.

There are tons of features we can use, e.g. whether the other person has followed this user, the number of common follows/followers, any overlap in basic information (like location) and so on so forth.

This is a complicated problem and there are various follow-up questions:

  • How to scale the system when there are millions/billions of users?
  • How to evaluate the system?
  • How to design the same feature for Facebook (bi-directional relationship)



Twitter shows you what’s trending now in hashtags. The feature is more complicated than trending topics and I think it’s necessary to briefly explain here.

Basically, Moments will show you a list of interesting topics for different categories (news, sports, fun etc.). For each topic, you will also get several top tweets discussing it. So it’s a great way to explore what’s going on at the current moment.

I’m pretty sure that there are a lot of ways to design this system. One option is to get hottest articles from news websites for the past 1-2 hours. For each article, find tweets related to it and figure out which category (news, sport, fun etc.) it belongs to. Then we can show this article as a trending topic in Moments.

Another similar approach is to get all the trending topics (same as the first section), figuring out each topic’s category, show them in Moment.

For both approaches, we would have the following three subproblems to solve: A. Categorize each tweet/topic to a category (news, sports etc.) B. Generate and rank trending topics at current moment C. Generate and rank tweets for each topic.

For A, we can pre-define several topics and do supervised learning. Or we may also consider clustering. In fact, text in tweets, user’s profile, follower’s comments contain a lot of information to make the algorithm accurate.

For B and C, since it’s similar to the first section of this post, I won’t talk about it now.



Twitter’s search feature is another popular function that people use every day. If you totally have no idea about how search engine works, you may take a look at this tutorial.

If we limit our discussion only to the general feed search function (excluding users search and advanced search), the high-level approach can be pretty similar to Google search except that you don’t need to crawl the web. Basically, you need to build indexing, ranking and retrieval.

Things become quite interesting if you dig into how to design the ranking algorithm. Unlike Google, Twitter search may care more about freshness and social signals.

The most straightforward approach is to give each feature/signal a weight and then compute a ranking score for each tweet. Then we can just rank them by the score. Features can include reply/retweet/favorite numbers, relevance, freshness, users popularity etc..

But how do we evaluate the ranking and search? I think it’s better to define few core metrics like total number of searches per day, tweet click even followed by a search etc. and observe these metrics every day. They are also stats we should care whatever changes are made.



You’ll realize that many features are quite data-driven, which doesn’t mean that you must be a machine learning expert. But having some high-level ideas about how data analysis works can be definitely helpful.

Also good engineers are usually good at coming up with great questions. Whenever you have a solution, try to ask yourself all kinds of questions to better understand the system.

If you find this post helpful, I would really appreciate if you can share it with your friends. Also you can check moresystem design interview questions and analysis here.

  • magicsign

    Nice post but I think you are just listing plenty of features rather than actually explain which technologies can be used and how to implement them (cookie authentication, load balancers…)